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Run on a Bare-Metal Platform

IREE supports CPU model execution on bare-metal platforms. That is, platforms without operating system support, for which executables are built using machine-specific linker scripts and/or board support packages (BSPs).

Bare-metal deployment typically uses IREE's LLVM compiler target much like the CPU configuration, but using a limited subset of IREE's CPU HAL driver code at runtime to load and execute compiled programs.


Out-of-tree bare-metal platform tools and source code for the system should be ready, such as

  • Compilation toolchain
  • Platform linker script
  • Firmware libraries

Please follow the instructions to retrieve the IREE compiler.

Compile the model for bare-metal

The model can be compiled with the following command (assuming the path to iree-compile is in your system's PATH):

iree-compile \
    --iree-stream-partitioning-favor=min-peak-memory \
    --iree-hal-target-backends=llvm-cpu \
    --iree-llvm-target-triple=x86_64-pc-linux-elf \
    --iree-llvm-debug-symbols=false \
    samples/models/simple_abs.mlir \
    -o /tmp/simple_abs_cpu.vmfb

In which

  • -iree-stream-partitioning-favor=min-peak-memory: Optimize for minimum peak memory usage at the cost of concurrency - include when targeting single-threaded execution to reduce memory consumption.
  • iree-hal-target-backends=llvm-cpu: Compile using the LLVM CPU target
  • iree-llvm-target-triple: Use the <arch>-pc-linux-elf LLVM target triple so the artifact has a fixed ABI to be rendered by the elf_module library
  • iree-llvm-debug-symbols=false: To reduce the artifact size

See for example command-line instructions of some common architectures

You can replace the MLIR file with the other MLIR model files, following the instructions

Compiling the bare-metal model for static-library support

See the static_library demo sample for an example and instructions on running a model with IREE's static_library_loader.

By default, the demo targets the host machine when compiling. To produce a bare-metal compatible model, run iree-compile as in the previous example and add the additional -iree-llvm-static-library-output-path= flag to specify the static library destination. This will produce a .h\.o file to link directly into the target application.

Build bare-metal runtime from the source

A few CMake options and macros should be set to build a subset of IREE runtime libraries compatible with the bare-metal platform. We assume there's no multi-thread control nor system library support in the bare-metal system. The model execution is in a single-thread synchronous fashion.

Set CMake options

  • set(IREE_BUILD_COMPILER OFF): Build IREE runtime only
  • set(CMAKE_SYSTEM_NAME Generic): Tell CMake to skip targeting a specific operating system
  • set(IREE_BINDINGS_TFLITE OFF): Disable the TFLite binding support
  • set(IREE_ENABLE_THREADING OFF): Disable multi-thread library support
  • set(IREE_HAL_DRIVER_DEFAULTS OFF): Disable HAL drivers by default, then enable the synchronous HAL drivers with set(IREE_HAL_DRIVER_LOCAL_SYNC ON)
  • set(IREE_HAL_EXECUTABLE_LOADER_DEFAULTS OFF): Disable HAL executable loaders by default, then enable the CPU codegen and VMVX loaders with set(IREE_HAL_EXECUTABLE_LOADER_EMBEDDED_ELF ON) and set(IREE_HAL_EXECUTABLE_LOADER_VMVX_MODULE ON)
  • set(IREE_BUILD_TESTS OFF): Disable tests until IREE supports running them on bare-metal platforms
  • set(IREE_BUILD_SAMPLES ON): Build simple_embedding example


Clean the list up after #6353 is fixed.

Also, set the toolchain-specific cmake file to match the tool path, target architecture, target abi, linker script, system library path, etc.

Define IREE macros

  • -DIREE_PLATFORM_GENERIC: Let IREE to build the runtime library without targeting a specific platform.
  • -DIREE_SYNCHRONIZATION_DISABLE_UNSAFE=1: Disable thread synchronization support. Must only be used if there's a single thread.
  • -DIREE_FILE_IO_ENABLE=0: Disable file I/O.
  • -DIREE_TIME_NOW_FN: A function to return the system time. For the bare-metal system, it can be set as -DIREE_TIME_NOW_FN=\"\{ return 0;\}\" as there's no asynchronous wait handling.
  • -DIREE_WAIT_UNTIL_FN: A function to wait until the given time in nanoseconds. Must match the signature bool(uint64_t nanos) and return false if the wait failed.

Examples of how to setup the CMakeLists.txt and .cmake file:

Bare-metal execution example

See simple_embedding for generic platform to see how to use the IREE runtime library to build/run the IREE model for the bare-metal target.